Kamis, 15 November 2012

b. inggris kelas x semester 1

Procedure Text (jangan baca procedural teks) adalah salah satu materi pelajaran bahasa Inggris tingkat menengah yang wajib sobat kuasai. Nah.. sobat butuh penjelasan lebih "unik" mengenai procedure text, silahkah baca tulisan ini dengan terlebih dahulu berdo'a, semoga apa yang saya pelajari bisa membuat saya bisa menguasai bahasa Inggris, amin.

Jangan pernah merasa bosan untuk membaca, toh membaca bukanlah tindakan kriminal. Oleh karena itu, baca saja penjelasan pelajaran bahasa Inggris tentang procedure text / teks procedure ini tanpa harus mengeluh. Jika sobat mengeluh, saya khawatir di suatu hari sobat menyesal tidak membaca tulisan ini :) Oke, langsung saja berikut adalah daftar isi tulisan mengenai procedural text yang bisa sobat baca, tinggal klik, sobat akan "dengan cepat" menuju tulisan ini:


PENGERTIAN PROCEDURE TEXT

Ada tiga definisi "umum" mengenai procedure text : (1)Texts that explain how something works or how to use instruction / operation manuals e.g. how to use the video, the computer, the tape recorder, the photocopier, the fax. (2) Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity e.g. recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules. (3) Texts that deal with human behaviour eg how to live happily, how to succeed.

Dari keterangan di atas, dapat kita garis bawahi bahwa procedure text adalah (1) Teks yang menjelaskan bagaimana sesuatu bekerja atau teks yang menjelaskan cara menggunakan pedoman instruksi / penggunaan. contoh : cara menggunakan video, komputer, mesin fotokopi, fax dll. (2) Teks yang menunjukan cara melakukan aktifitas tertentu. contoh : resep, aturan bermain game, eksperimen ilmiah, aturan keamanan berkendara. (3) Teks yang berhubungan dengan tingkah laku manusia. contoh : cara hidup bahagian, cara sukses. dll..

The purpose procedural text is to tell the reader how to do or make something. The information is presented in a logical sequence of events which is broken up into small sequenced steps. These texts are usually written in the present tense. The most common example of a procedural text is a recipe.

Tujuan procedure text adalah memberitahu pembaca cara melakukan / membuat sesuatu. Informasi disajikan dengan urutan peristiwa yang logis. Peristiwa tersebut biasanya dibagi menjadi beberapa langkah-langkah terpisah. Teks ini biasanya ditulis menggunakan present tense. Contoh paling umum procedure text adalah resep masakan.

GENERIC STRUCTURE OF PROCEDURE TEXT

Seperti halnya pengertian procedure text di atas, generic structure (susunan umum) procedure text juga ada tiga :
(1) Goal (Maksud atau tujuan)
(2) Material Needed (Materi / alat / bahan yang dibutuhkan)
(3) Methods or Steps (Metode / langkah-langkah)

Catatan : Pada procedure text yang berupa How-to ("Pokoknya berjudul how to"), kadang material needed (materi yang dibutuhkan) tidak disertakan. (aturan tidak wajib sih dan bisa diubah2 kok :)

CONTOH PROCEDURE TEXT - NASI GORENG "FRIED RICE"

Nasi goreng, "fried rice" is a familiar food from Indonesia; if you want to know how to prepare nasi goreng this is the procedure how to make nasi goreng. Just follow this explanation :

Ingredients :

  • 350 gr. Long Grain Rice
  • 2 Tbs. Vegetable Oil
  • 3 Eggs
  • 1 Onion
  • 2 Green Chillis, Sambal Ulek or Sambal Badjak.
  • 1 Garlic Clove
  • 1 Leek
  • 1 teaspoon Ground Coriander
  • 1 teaspoon Ground Cumin
  • 250 gr. Chicken meat
  • 250 gr. Shelled Prawns
  • 3 Tbs. Kecap Manis

Steps :

This dish is best made from cold leftover rice, but you can cook a fresh batch and leave it to cool for at least 4 hours. Beat the eggs and make into a omelette, slice into strips and set aside. Heat the oil in a wok or large frying pan. Add the chopped onion, leek, garlic and chillis. Fry until the onion is soft. Add the Coriander and Cumin. Slice Chicken into strips and add with the prawns to the onion mixture and cook, stirring occasionally until they are well mixed. Add the rice, soya sauce and omelet strips and cook for a further 5 minutes.Decorate with some of the leftover leek and serve hot. Enjoy. 

CONTOH PROCEDURE TEXT - HOW TO RIDE A BICYCLE

  • Sitting on the bike, make sure you know where the brakes are and how to operate them.
  • You have to learn to balance the bike. Find a person who can hold your bike behind you and try to steady it as you pedal. Also find a place to ride that is grassy or such.
  • After practicing for a couple minutes, the person can release his or her hands while you try to keep your balance.
  • When you are ready, ride alone. But first lower the seat until you can sit on it and put both feet flat on the ground.
  • When you are confident you can put your feet on the pedals and coast for a few feet, try not putting your feet down to train your sense of balance. Do this for 30-45 minutes or so, until you have a good feel and some confidence about steering the bike.
  • As you gain experience, raise the seat up so that only your toes can touch the ground while you are seated. This is the more appropriate height for your seat.
  • Finally, you have to practice.
  • Once you can balance, pedal, start, and stop, you're a bicycle rider. Congratulations!
Untuk sementara, contoh-contoh procedure text hanya bisa disajikan dua saja. Semoga bisa disajikan lebih banyak lagi agar sobat bisa mengetahui cara membuat dan mempraktikkan procedure text. :)

TIK (b.inggris kelas xsmster 1) narative text

Narrative Text - Penjelasan & Contoh


Pernah mendapat tugas membuat narrative text? Atau sedang membuat skripsi bahasa Inggris dengan variable narrative text? Santai saja, di sini akan dijelaskan secara singkat mengenai teks naratif.

Narrative text, dalam mata kuliah writing and composition biasanya disebut narration, adalah salah satu jenis teks dalam sebuah bahasa. Biasanya, narrative text (teks naratif) berisi tentang cerita--baik cerita fiksi, cerita non-fiksi, dongeng, cerita rakyat, cerita binatang / fabel dll, pokoknya semua hal tentang cerita ya narrative namanya... :-)

Mengacu pada keterangan di atas, contoh - contoh narrative text sebenarnya sudah banyak diterbitkan dalam blog ini, seperti :

Mudah bukan?

Sekarang sedikit serius, karena akan menjurus pada penjelasan, oke...

Pengertian Narrative Text

Disebutkan bahwa A narrative text is an imaginative story to entertain people (teks narasi adalah cerita imaginatif yang bertujuan menghibur orang). 

Jika melihat pada kamus bahasa Inggris, secara harfiah narrative bermakna (1) a spoken or written account of connected events; a story. (2) the narrated part of a literary work, as distinct from dialogue. (3) the practice or art of narration. 

(Narrative bermakna : 1. sebuah cerita baik terucap atau tertulis tentang peristiwa-peristiwa yang berhubungan. 2. bagian yang diceritakan dalam sebuah karya sastra, berbeda dengan dialog. 3. Praktik atau seni bercerita)



Jika disimpulkan, maka sebuah narrative text adalah teks yang berisi sebuah cerita baik tertulis ataupun tidak tertulis dan terdapat rangkaian peristiwa yang saling terhubung.


Generic Structure dari Narrative Text

Bagi sobat yang masih duduk di bangku sekolah tingkat menengah, penjelasan mengenai narrative texts tak usah sulit-sulit ya.. Intinya, narrative text ini mempunyai struktur / susunan seperti di bawah ini : 


  • Orientation : It is about the opening paragraph where the characters of the story are introduced.(berisi pengenalan tokoh, tempat dan waktu terjadinya cerita (siapa atau apa, kapan dan dimana) 


  • Complication : Where the problems in the story developed. (Permasalahan muncul / mulai terjadi dan berkembang)

  • Resolution : Where the problems in the story is solved. Masalah selesai, --- secara baik "happy ending" ataupun buruk "bad ending".

Kadangkala susunan (generic structure) narrative text bisa berisi: Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution dan Reorientation. Meski “Evaluation” dan “Reorientation” merupakan optional; bisa ditambahkan dan bisa tidak. Evaluation berisi penilaian/evaluasi terhadap jalannya cerita atau konflik. Sedangkan Reorientation berisi penyimpulan isi akhir cerita.

Jika sudah mahir membuat cerita narrative, susunannya bisa diubah-ubah kok, yang terpenting bagian-bagian di atas masih tetap ada dalam tulisan narrative sobat. 


Grammar Used dalam Narrative Text

Grammar (tata bahasa) yang sering muncul dalam membuat narrative text adalah:

Menggunakan tenses "Past", baik simple, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect continuous, atau bisa saja past future continuous. (aturan ini bukan aturan wajib yang mutlak harus dipenuhi kok. Tidak percaya, tanyakan pada guru bahasa Inggris sobat)

Untuk lebih jelasnya, lihat contohnya di bawah ini :


Contoh Narrative Text (1)

Sincere Will Get a Great Return

Once upon a time, there was a kingdom named Auretto, all people lived peacefully there. One of them was Charlita, the king’s daughter who was assumed as the most beautiful and kindest Princess of Auretto.
One day, Charlita looked blue. Because of that her father got confused. “What’s the matter my beautiful daughter? Why are you so sad?” asked King Fernando. Charlita was just silent. She did not say anything.
Then, King Fernando decided to make a competition to cheer Charlita again. After that, the palace representative announce: “I will make a competition. The aim is to make my daughter, Princess Charlita to be happy and laugh again. Everyone who can do it, will get a prize. It will be held tomorrow when the sun rises. Sign: King Fernando.”
The following morning, everybody came to the palace, tried to give their best performance. They seemed happy and laugh, but not for Princess Charlita. She was just silent and still looked sad.
King Fernando started to give up. No one amused his daughter. Then, there came a young handsome man. “Excuse me King Fernando. I would like to join your competition. But, would you mind if I took Princess Charlita for a walk?” said the young man gently. “As long as you make my daughter be happy again, it will totally alright.” said King Fernando. The young handsome man took Princess Charlita for a walk in a beautiful blue lake with a green forest around it. Princess Charlita smiled and looked happy after that. Every body looked happy, too. “I know why are you so my beautiful daughter. Now, I promise I will environment green. I regret for always destroying it. Finally, the environment around the kingdom became so beautiful and green, full of plants. Then, the young handsome man got a prize from the king. “I will marry you off my daughter.” said him. “That is the prize I promise for you. Thanks for keeping our environment well. Thanks for making my daughter happy again.”

Contoh Narrative Text (2)

The Legend of Rawa Pening
Once upon a time, there was a little poor boy came into a little village. He was very hungry and weak. He knocked at every door and asked for some food, but nobody cared about him. Nobody wanted to help the little boy.

Finally, a generous woman helped him. She gave him shelter and a meal. When the boy wanted to leave, this old woman gave him a “lesung”, a big wooden mortar for pounding rice. She reminded him, “please remember, if there is a flood you must save yourself. Use this “lesung” as a boat”. The “lesung” was happy and thanked the old woman.The little boy continued his journey. While he was passing through the village, he saw many people gathering on the field. The boy came closer and saw a stick stuck in the ground. People challenged each other to pull out that stick. Everybody tried, but nobody succeeded. “Can I try?” asked the little boy. The crowd laughed mockingly. The boy wanted to try his luck so he stepped forward and pulled out the stick. He could do it very easily. Everybody was dumbfounded.

Suddenly, from the hole left by stick, water spouted out. It did not stop until it flooded the village. And no one was saved from the water except the little boy and the generous old woman who gave him shelter and meal. As she told him, he used the “lesung” as a boat and picked up the old woman. The whole village became a huge lake. It is now known as Rawa Pening Lake in Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia.



Penjelasan Narrative Text (untuk tingkat Mahir)
 
Untuk mengetahui definisi dan penjelasan tentang narration (narrative text) sobat mahasiswa dan mahasiswi bisa membaca buku buku tentang writing di perpustakaan terdekat dan terlengkap, dan disini saya hanya akan mengutipkan pendapat Thomas S. Kane (2000: 363-364) di bawah ini:

A narrative is a meaningful sequence of events told in words. It is sequential in that the events are ordered, not merely random. Sequence always involves an arrangement in time (and usually other arrangements as well). A straightforward movement from the first event to the last constitutes the simplest chronology. However, chronology is sometimes complicated by presenting the events in another order: for example, a story may open with the final episode and then flash back to all that preceded it.

A narrative has meaning in that it conveys an evaluation of some kind. The writer reacts to the story he or she tells, and states or implies that reaction. This is the "meaning," sometimes called the "theme," of a story. Meaning must always be rendered. The writer has to do more than tell us the truth he sees in the story; he must manifest that truth in the characters and the action.

Characters and action are the essential elements of any story. Also important, but not as essential, is the setting, the place where the action occurs. Characters are usually people—sometimes actual people, as in history books or newspaper stories, sometimes imaginary ones, as in novels. Occasionally characters are animals (as in an Aesop fable), and sometimes a dominant feature of the environment functions almost like a character (the sea, an old house).

The action is what the characters say and do and anything that happens to them, even if it arises from a nonhuman source—a storm, for instance, or a fire. Action is often presented in the form of a plot. Action is, so to speak, the raw material; plot, the finished product, the fitting together of the bits and pieces of action into a coherent pattern. Usually, though not invariably, plot takes the form of a cause-and effect chain: event A produces event B; B leads to C; C to D; and so on until the final episode, X. In a well-constructed plot of this kind we can work back from X to A and see the connections that made the end of the story likely and perhaps inevitable.

Stories can be very long and complicated, with many characters, elaborate plots, and subtle interpenetration of character, action, and setting. In writing that is primarily expository, however, narratives are shorter and simpler. Most often they are factual rather than imaginary, as when an historian describes an event. And often in exposition an illustration may involve a simple narrative. Being able to tell a story, then, while not the primary concern of the expository writer, is a skill which he or she will now and again be called upon to use.

TIK (ringkasan materi b. inggris kelas x semester 1)

Recount Text - Penjelasan & Contoh

.
--> Mari memahami recount text lebih dekat... Jika sobat masih bingung cara membuat recount text, alangkah baiknya sobat baca tulisan ini. Mungkin saja penjelasan tentang recount text ini bisa membantu mempermudah pemahaman jenis teks yang "konon" mirip dengan narrative text ini.

Jika dalam narrative text, ada sebuah komplikasi atau masalah yang muncul dalam sebuah cerita; maka berbeda dengan recount text. Apa sih bedanya? Oke kita lanjutkan, dalam recount text, yang ada hanya sebuah peristiwa saja (event); serta urutan-urutan ceritanya tertata rapi. (Note: Mohon maaf saya bukan guru bahasa Inggris, saya sebenarnya lebih setuju jika recount text ini dikatakan sebagai nenek moyang narrative text. Meski dalam linguistics saya belum menemukan 'kata yang pas' untuk jenis teks ini).
Untuk lebih jelas, mari kita pahami keterangan berikut.

Secara harfiah, recount bermakna "menceritakan". Jadi recount text bisa diartikan sebagai "Text yang menceritakan". Jika mengacu pada keterangan di buku-buku sekolah (baca : Buku Bahasa Inggris SMP / SMA) recount text adalah a text that telling the reader about one story, action or activity. Its goal is to entertaining or informing the reader. (sebuah teks yang menceritakan sebuah cerita, aksi ataupun aktifitas. Tujuan recount text adalah untuk menghibur atau menginformasikan pembaca.)

Generic structure (susunan umum) recount text ini terdiri dari:
  • Orientation tells who was involved, what happened, where the events took place, and when it happened. ("Orientation" menceritakan siapaapa yang terjadi, di mana tempat peristiwa terjadi, dan kapan terjadi peristiwanya)
    saja yang terlibat dalam cerita,
  • Events tell what happened and in what sequence. ("Event" menceritakan apa yang terjadi (lagi) dan menceritakan urutan ceritanya)
  • Reorientation consists of optional-closure of events/ending. ("Reorientation" berisi penutup cerita / akhir cerita)

My Adolescence

I had my adolescence when I was thirteen.

It started with acne that showed up on my face. It was very annoying. It lowered my self-esteem and I was embarrassed to come out of my house and play with friends.
Fortunately, my Mum gave me a good medicine. In three weeks, the acnes started to vanish although those showed some black spots in my face.

That was my bad experience with adolescence, though there were still lots of good experience too.
Analisa :
Orientation : Paragraf pertama, (I had my adolescence when I was thirteen)
Events : Paragraf kedua dan ketiga.
Reorientation : Paragraf keempat (terakhir)

My Holiday in Bali
ditulis oleh Annisa Aulia Saharani

When I was 2nd grade of senior high school, my friends and I went to Bali. We were there for three days. I had many impressive experiences during the vacation.
First day, we visited Sanur Beach in the morning. We saw the beautiful sunrise together. It was a great scenery. Then, we checked in to the hotel. After prepared our selves, we went to Tanah Lot. We met so many other tourists there. They were not only domestic but also foreign tourists.
Second day, we enjoyed the day on Tanjung Benoa beach. We played so many water sports such as banana boat, jetsky, speedboat etc. We also went to Penyu island to see many unique animals. They were turtles, snakes, and sea birds. We were very happy. In the afternoon, we went to Kuta Beach to see the amazing sunset and enjoyed the beautiful wave.
The last day, we spent our time in Sangeh. We could enjoy the green and shady forest. There were so many monkies. They were so tame but sometimes they could be naughty. We could make a close interaction with them. After that, we went to Sukowati market for shopping. That was my lovely time. I bought some Bali T-Shirt and souvenirs.
In the evening, we had to check out from the hotel. We went back home bringing so many amazing memories of Bali.

A Beautiful Day at Jogja
ditulis oleh Arsianti Dewi

Last week, my friends and I went to Jogja. We visited many places.

First, we visited Parangtritis beach. The sun shone brightly and the scenery was very beautiful there. We felt the wind blew across to us. We also saw a lot of people in that beach. There werw many birds flew in the sky. Also, there were many sellers who sold many kinds of souvenirs. Second, we visited Gembira Loka Zoo. We saw many kinds of animals there such as monkeys, tigers, crocodiles, snakes, etc. We looked around in that Zoo, and also took pictures of those animals. Then, we felt hungry, so we went to a restaurant. As soon as we finished our lunc, we decided to go home.
For me, that was a beautiful day. we really enjoyed it, and I hope I could visit Jogja again.

My First Experience to Ride Motorcycle
ditulis oleh Resdwitarini
One day, when I was ten years old, my father bought an old motorcycle. That was " Honda 75". I think it was small light object and easy to ride it. I persuaded my father to teach me to ride " Honda 75 ". Firstly, my father refused my request and promised that he would teach me two or three years later, but I still whimpered. Finally, my father surrendered and promised to teach me.

He began to teach me riding the motorcycle around a field in my village. My father was very patient to give me some directions. I was very happy when I realized my ability to ride a motorcycle. " Yes, I can ".

One day later, when I was alone at home, I intended to try my riding ability. So, myself tried bravely. All ran fluently in the beginning, but when I was going back to my home and I must passed through a narrow slippery street, I got nervous. I lost my control and I fell to the ditch.

After that, I told my father about the last accident. I imagined my father would be angry and never let me ride again. But the reality is exactly on the contrary, my father was very proud of me. He just gave me some advices and since that accident, I got my father's permission to ride motorcycle.

A Page from A Girl's Diary
ditulis oleh Pratama Lysa Hapsari

Tuesday, September 30th, 2008
 
It was takbiran night. It was also my birthday, and nothing happened. Or I had thought nothing would happen, but I was wrong.
 
That night, I was watching television with my family when I heard someone lit fireworks in my front yard. I peeped trough my window glass but could see nothing. It was very dark outside. Then I thought it had to be my cousins who lit the fireworks. Then I plopped down on my sofa again and tried to concentrate on the television since my mind raced with disappointment that no one gave something special on my birthday. I shrugged, it was almost the end of the day and I became pessimist. Five minutes later my mobile beeped. It was a text from my friend asking me to come out. Wondering what was going on, I grabbed my jacket and hurried to the front door. I was surprised to see her bring a bag full of firework and fire drills. Next I was surprised to see my other friend come out from the darkness. She brought a beautiful birthday cake on her hands. Oh my God! I shrieked. Then they gave the cake to me who was too stunned to say anything. I realized I was blushing furiously because my whole family was watching. Not to mention my neighbors too!
 
A plain day, or I thought it was before, turned out to be one of the greatest moment in my life. I didn’t even know how to describe what I felt. Happy was the simplest word.


1.  what is the procedure text ?
2.general structure mentioned in the text procedure !
3.what is the recount text ?
4. general structure mentioned in the recount text !
5.give examples procedure text ?
6. give axamples recount text 
7. what is the description text ?
8. give axamples description text
9.general structure mentioned in the description text
10.make a description of the computer

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